Bradley Find articles by Valerie J. Find articles by Barbara J.
Overview[ edit ] A design rationale is the explicit listing of decisions made during a design processand the reasons why those decisions were made.
Several science areas are involved in the study of design rationales, such as computer science  cognitive science artificial intelligence and knowledge management. Several variants on IBIS have since been proposed.
Some key distinguishing features are how it is captured, how it is represented, and how it can be used. Rationale capture is the process of acquiring rationale information to a rationale management Capture methods A method called "Reconstruction"  captures rationales in a raw form such as video, and then reconstruct them into a more structured form.
But this method might result in high cost and biases of the person producing the rationales The "Record-and-replay"  method simply captures rationales as they unfold. Rationales are synchronously captured in a video conference or asynchronously captured via bulletin board or email-based discussion.
If the system has informal and semi-formal representation, the method will be helpful. The "Methodological byproduct"  method captures rationales during the process of design following a schema. The advantage of this method is its low cost. This method benefits not only the user but the system.
In "Automatic Generation"  method, design rationales are automatically generated from an execution history at low cost.
It has the ability in maintaining consistent and up-to-date rationales. But the cost of compiling the execution history is high due to the complexity and difficulty of some machine-learning problems. Rationales are captured during the design process.
According to the degree of formality, the approaches that are used to represent design rationale can be divided into three main categories: However, these descriptions make it hard for automatic interpretation or other computer-based supports.
In the formal representation, the rationale must be collected under a strict format so that the rationale can be interpreted and understood by computers. However, due to the strict format of rationale defined by formal representations, the contents can hardly be understood by human being and the process of capturing design rationale will require more efforts to finish, and therefore becomes more intrusive.
Semiformal representations try to combine the advantages of informal and formal representations. On one hand, the information captured should be able to be processed by computers so that more computer based support can be provided.
On the other hand, the procedure and method used to capture information of design rationale should not be very intrusive. In the system with a semiformal representation, the information expected is suggested and the users can capture rationale by following the instructions to either fill out the attributes according to some templates or just type into natural language descriptions.
One advantage of Toulmin model is that it uses words and concepts which can be easily understood by most people. In addition, QOC uses criteria to explicitly describe the methods to evaluate the options, such as the requirements to be satisfied or the properties desired.
The options are linked with criteria positively or negatively and these links are defined as assessments. Lee has argued that DRL is more expressive than other languages. WinWin Spiral Model The WinWin Spiral Model, which is used in the WinWin approach,  adds the WinWin negotiation activities, including identifying key stakeholders of the systems, and identifying the win conditions of each stakeholder and negotiation, into the front of each cycle of the spiral software development model  in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory winwin agreement for all stakeholders of the project.
Once there is a conflict between win conditions, it is captured as an Issue. Then the stakeholders invent Options and explore trade-offs to resolve the issue.An HRBA “is a conceptual framework that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights.”15 HRBAs have been successfully implemented in a variety of fields, including international development and HIV treatment In the context of mental health care, an HRBA.
The rights-based approach would be consistent with recognizing human rights, and the crime control approach would be consistent with: true The principle of double effect would justify a bombing that resulted in the death of civilians if the target was a legitimate military target.
Rights-based approach to development is an approach to development promoted by many development agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to achieve a positive transformation of power relations among the various development actors.
Conversely, Rights-Based Approaches (RBA) have often been generated out of the need to support citizens in raising voice and demanding rights. These approaches have been exemplified in social movements, such as women’s and land rights movements, in the South.
Interests, Rights, Power and Needs Frames. By Michelle Maiese. negotiations involve a mix of all three approaches.
There are attempts to satisfy interests, some discussion of rights, and some references to relative power. because reaching agreement based on rights is often difficult, parties typically turn to a third party to decide. The relationship between mental health and human rights has at least three parts First, human rights violations such as torture and displacement negatively affect mental health Second, mental health practices, programs, and laws, such as coercive treatment practices, can impact human rights Finally, the advancement of human rights.
|Children need your help||Key elements of EBPH have been summarized 3 as the following: Engaging the community in assessment and decision making; Using data and information systems systematically; Making decisions on the basis of the best available peer-reviewed evidence both quantitative and qualitative ; Applying program planning frameworks often based in health behavior theory ; Conducting sound evaluation; and Disseminating what is learned.|
|NEA - A Clear Rationale for Learner-Centered Teaching||This includes explaining how the new learning roles and responsibilities expected of them in a learner-centered classroom will allow them to better meet their learning and life goals.|
|Design rationale - Wikipedia||Since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the international community has developed a legally binding framework for the protection of human rights. These legal documents have created norms and standards internationally.|
|Participation||What is a human rights-based approach? A human rights-based approach is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights.|