Twin research[ change change source ] Identical twins are natural clones. Because they carry the same genes they may be used to investigate how much heredity contributes to individual people.
Is There a Conclusion Here? In order to address the question of how an individual arrives at their sexual being in adulthood, it is important to touch upon the root debate of most of human behavior.
The discussion of nature versus nurture. For this chapter, the concept of Nature is defined as those behavioral traits that are developed only because they are caused by innate characteristics, uninfluenced by how one is raised or their socio-cultural environment.
In other words, nature is mostly about inheritance, or if I got it from my Mama, as the musician Will I Am, would put it. Nurture is defined by external influences which not only influence behavior and intelligence, but creates it.
Nature includes factors such as parental upbringing, teachers, peer groups and other social structures as well as cultural influences such as leadership, politics and art concepts that an individual is exposed to, like the aforementioned crappy song.
History and Nature vs. I know, many philosophy courses will teach that it began within Greek philosophy, but I would have to disagree. In fact, the premise of all branches of Christianity is that people die because Eve ate some fruit. Regardless of if the religion believes in the passing on of guilt, they still believe in the passing on of punishment and that the role of the offspring is to behave accordingly or be taught to.
I can understand this, though. I clearly have no choice but to blame my Great-Grandma Doll. Many early tribes at various parts of history and from many places have considered infants to be a non-life until they were older, which also provided a justification for infanticide, in some cultures.
Other tribes seemed to believe in a kind of pre-programmed destiny, which would allow for the selection of Shamans or the detection of infants with bad spirits. This could also be a way for a tribe to explain how defective infants could be born.
Some tribes, though, taught that children possessed certain spiritual values from birth and that they could be influenced by others once they are born, indicating that they believed in nature and nurture as guiding behavior.
Examples of attitudes about infants and pre-determined personalities include how followers of some forms of Buddhism believe that the Lutus Sutra, dating back to around or AD, holds doctrine that instructs on the Dalai Lama.
These same religions, though, have various branches, some of which hold beliefs which claim an infant must go through a process of guidance in order to gain personhood.
The practices of infant sacrifice in ancient cultures at least indicate that the infant has some value to the spiritual world. References to child and infant sacrifices in the Bible imply a value in the infant, even if that value is for purposes of inheritance and their projected value as an adult.
Infants and children at that time existed in a culture where their futures were determined for them due to their standing within their culture. A son of a Pharaoh, for example, was believed to be destined to be a Pharaoh and the son of a landowner was often destined to be like his father.
The killing of such a child also meant that the futures of the parents would be more difficult, without offspring to care for them in their old age. Because of this, killing a person, even an infant, due to their predicted destiny and in an attempt to change the future, was not unheard of.
The story of Oedipus, where is father hired a servant to kill him, is probably the most famous example of one such alleged attempt. It is a story dating as far back as BC, but likely having evolved from earlier myths.
This informal debate that incorporates concepts such as destiny and an essentially hard-wired concept of personality has been carried throughout mythology for ages, even when not brought into formal debates.Moral Development. This entry analyzes moral development as a perennial philosophical view complemented by modern empirical research programs.
The two initial sections summarize what moral development is and why it is important for ethics and human nature theory. IQ tests measure intelligence, but not perfectly. For example, someone who makes a lucky guess on a multiple choice IQ test will get a higher score even though they are not more intelligent than someone who makes an unlucky guess.
The nature vs nurture debate has been going on since the early ages, but the heat is still on between the belief that our genes dictate all our traits and the idea that rearing plays the most part.
The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in psychology. The debate centers on the relative contributions of genetic inheritance and environmental factors to human development.
Some philosophers such as Plato and Descartes suggested that certain things are inborn, or that they occur naturally regardless of environmental. Nature verses Nurture is an old ongoing disagreement over the comparative influences that genetic factors and involvement make to the growth of psychological characters and behaviors.
Today’s science understands the characteristics and behaviors growing from dealings of Nature and Nurture. The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in psychology.
The debate centers on the relative contributions of genetic inheritance and environmental factors to human development. Some philosophers such as Plato and Descartes suggested that certain things are inborn, or that they occur naturally regardless of environmental influences.