The birth of the internet

Barack Obama's birth certificate is a forgery. Have heard rumors it's because he is listed as white.

The birth of the internet

Ars Technica is proud to present three chapters from the book, condensed and adapted for our readers. This first installment is adapted from Chapter 1, "A Concept Born in the Shadow of the Nuke," and it looks at the role that the prospect of nuclear war played in the technical and policy decisions that gave rise to the Internet.

The US and Soviet Union prepared themselves for a nuclear war in which casualties would be counted not in millions but in the hundreds of millions. As the decade began, President Truman's strategic advisors recommended that the US embark on a massive rearmament to face off the Communist threat.

The logic was simple: A more rapid build-up of political, economic, and military strength The frustration of the Kremlin design requires the free world to develop a successfully functioning political and economic system and a vigorous political offensive against the Soviet Union.

These, in turn, require an adequate military shield under which they can develop. The report, NSC, also proposed that the US consider pre-emptive nuclear The birth of the internet on Soviet targets should a Soviet attack appear imminent.

Eisenhower's election in did little to take the heat out of Cold War rhetoric. He threatened the USSR with "massive retaliation" against any attack, irrespective of whether conventional or nuclear forces had been deployed against the US.

The interstate highway system isn't the only society-altering network that we …

FromRobert McNamara, Secretary of Defense under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, adopted a strategy of "flexible response" that dropped the massive retaliation rhetoric and made a point of avoiding the targeting of Soviet cities. Even so, technological change kept tensions high.

By the mid s, the Air Force had upgraded its nuclear missiles to use solid-state propellants that reduced their launch time from eight hours to a matter of minutes.

The new Minuteman and Polaris missiles were at hair-trigger alert. A nuclear conflagration could begin, literally, in the blink of an eye. Yet while US missiles were becoming easier to let loose on the enemy, the command and control systems that coordinated them remained every bit as vulnerable as they had ever been.

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A secret document drafted for President Kennedy in highlighted the importance of command and control. The report detailed a series of possible nuclear exchange scenarios in which the President would be faced with "decision points" over the course of approximately 26 hours.

One scenario described a "nation killing" first strike by the Soviet Union that would kill between 30 and million people and destroy per cent of US industrial capacity. Though this might sound like an outright defeat, the scenario described in the secret document envisaged that the President would still be required to issue commands to remaining US nuclear forces at three pivotal decision points over the next day.

The first of these decisions, assuming the President survived the first strike, would be made at zero hour 0 H. Kennedy would have to determine the extent of his retaliatory second strike against the Soviets. He would have to determine whether to negotiate, maintain his strike or escalate.

In the hypothetical scenario, the President reacted by expanding US retaliation to include Soviet population centres in addition to the military and industrial targets already under attack by the US second strike.

At this point, European nuclear forces launched nuclear strikes against Soviet targets. The President also told his Soviet counterpart that any submerged Soviet nuclear missile submarines would remain subject to attack. In order for the President to make even one of these decisions, a nuclear-proof method of communicating to his nuclear strike forces was a prerequisite.

Unfortunately, this did not exist. A separate briefing for Kennedy described the level of damage that the US and USSR would be likely to sustain in the first wave of a nuclear exchange.THE FILM. Adopted at birth and raised in Louisiana, David Scotton is on a journey to Indiana to meet the birth parents he’s never known.

His tattooed birth mother, Melissa, and reserved birth father, Brian, anxiously wait for him, concerned David will reject them for decisions they made before he was born.

More Information. Search more than 8 million genealogy Birth, Marriage and Death records. Records date from New records become available regularly as we update our Web site.

VitalChek is the authorized external ordering source for fast, secure vital records processed directly with the issuing government agency at the lowest cost available online. Oct 26,  · The web team at CERN are working to preserve some of the digital assets that are associated with the birth of the web.

The birth of the internet

Read about the restoration project The line-mode browser. The line-mode browser, launched in , was the first readily accessible browser for the World Wide Web 18 Mar – The inaugural Queen Elizabeth . Internet Services - Ohio's Leading Internet Service Provider. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations presented in this material are only those of the presenter grantee/researcher, author, or agency employee; and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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