In contemporary usage, the term white supremacist has been used to describe some groups espousing ultranationalist, racistor fascist doctrines. White supremacist groups often have relied on violence to achieve their goals. From the 19th to the midth century the doctrine of white supremacy was largely taken for granted by political leaders and social scientists in Europe and the United States. Several attempts were made to give white supremacy a scientific footing, as various institutes and renowned scientists published findings asserting the biological superiority of whites.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. European expansion since The global expansion of western Europe between the s and the s differed in several important ways from the expansionism and colonialism of previous centuries. Along with the rise of the Industrial Revolution, which economic historians generally trace to the s, and the continuing spread of industrialization in the empire-building countries came a shift in the strategy of trade with the colonial world.
Instead of being primarily buyers of colonial products and frequently under strain to offer sufficient salable goods to balance the exchangeas in the past, the industrializing nations increasingly became sellers in search of markets for the growing volume of their machine-produced goods.
Furthermore, over the years there occurred a decided shift in the composition of demand for goods produced in the colonial areas. Spices, sugar, and slaves became relatively less important with the advance of industrialization, concomitant with a rising demand for raw materials for industry e.
This shift in trading patterns entailed in the long run changes in colonial policy and practice as well as in the nature of colonial acquisitions. The urgency to create markets and the incessant pressure for new materials and food were eventually reflected in colonial practices, which sought to adapt the colonial areas to the new priorities of the industrializing nations.
Such adaptation involved major disruptions of existing social systems over wide areas of the globe. Before the impact of the Industrial Revolution, European activities in the rest of the world were largely confined to: However disruptive these changes may have been to the societies of Africa, South Americaand the isolated plantation and white-settler colonies, the social systems over most of the Earth outside Europe nevertheless remained much the same as they had been for centuries in some places for millennia.
These societies, with their largely self-sufficient small communities based on subsistence agriculture and home industry, provided poor markets for the mass-produced goods flowing from the factories of the technologically advancing countries; nor were the existing social systems flexible enough to introduce and rapidly expand the commercial agriculture and, later, mineral extraction required to supply the food and raw material needs of the empire builders.
The adaptation of the nonindustrialized parts of the world to become more profitable adjuncts of the industrializing nations embraced, among other things: The classic illustration of this last policy is found in India.
For centuries India had been an exporter of cotton goods, to such an extent that Great Britain for a long period imposed stiff tariff duties to protect its domestic manufacturers from Indian competition.
Yet, by the middle of the 19th century, India was receiving one-fourth of all British exports of cotton piece goods and had lost its own export markets.
Clearly, such significant transformations could not get very far in the absence of appropriate political changes, such as the development of a sufficiently cooperative local elite, effective administrative techniques, and peace-keeping instruments that would assure social stability and environments conducive to the radical social changes imposed by a foreign power.
Consistent with these purposes was the installation of new, or amendments of old, legal systems that would facilitate the operation of a money, business, and private land economy. Tying it all together was the imposition of the culture and language of the dominant power. The changing nature of the relations between centres of empire and their colonies, under the impact of the unfolding Industrial Revolution, was also reflected in new trends in colonial acquisitions.
While in preceding centuries colonies, trading posts, and settlements were in the main, except for South America, located along the coastline or on smaller islands, the expansions of the late 18th century and especially of the 19th century were distinguished by the spread of the colonizing powers, or of their emigrants, into the interior of continents.
Such continental extensions, in general, took one of two forms, or some combination of the two: At the heart of Western expansionism was the growing disparity in technologies between those of the leading European nations and those of the rest of the world. Differences between the level of technology in Europe and some of the regions on other continents were not especially great in the early part of the 18th century.
In fact, some of the crucial technical knowledge used in Europe at that time came originally from Asia. During the 18th century, however, and at an accelerating pace in the 19th and 20th centuries, the gap between the technologically advanced countries and technologically backward regions kept on increasing despite the diffusion of modern technology by the colonial powers.
The most important aspect of this disparity was the technical superiority of Western armaments, for this superiority enabled the West to impose its will on the much larger colonial populations. Advances in communication and transportation, notably railroads, also became important tools for consolidating foreign rule over extensive territories.
And along with the enormous technical superiority and the colonizing experience itself came important psychological instruments of minority rule by foreigners: Naturally, the above description and summary telescope events that transpired over many decades and the incidence of the changes varied from territory to territory and from time to time, influenced by the special conditions in each area, by what took place in the process of conquest, by the circumstances at the time when economic exploitation of the possessions became desirable and feasible, and by the varying political considerations of the several occupying powers.
Moreover, it should be emphasized that expansion policies and practices, while far from haphazard, were rarely the result of long-range and integrated planning.
The drive for expansion was persistent, as were the pressures to get the greatest advantage possible out of the resulting opportunities. But the expansions arose in the midst of intense rivalry among major powers that were concerned with the distribution of power on the continent of Europe itself as well as with ownership of overseas territories.
Thus, the issues of national power, national wealth, and military strength shifted more and more to the world stage as commerce and territorial acquisitions spread over larger segments of the globe. In fact, colonies were themselves often levers of military power—sources of military supplies and of military manpower and bases for navies and merchant marines.
European colonial activity —c. Nonetheless, there was a convergence of developments in the early s, which, despite many qualifications, delineates a new stage in European expansionism and especially in that of the most successful empire builder, Great Britain.
As a result of the Treaty of Paris, France lost nearly all of its colonial empire, while Britain became, except for Spainthe largest colonial power in the world.
In addition, the new commanding position on the seas provided an opportunity for Great Britain to probe for additional markets in Asia and Africa and to try to break the Spanish trade monopoly in South America.
During this period, the scope of British world interests broadened dramatically to cover the South Pacific, the Far East, the South Atlantic, and the coast of Africa. The initial aim of this outburst of maritime activity was not so much the acquisition of extensive fresh territory as the attainment of a far-flung network of trading posts and maritime bases.
The latter, it was hoped, would serve the interdependent aims of widening foreign commerce and controlling ocean shipping routes.Jan 26, · Westward Expansion and the Effects on the United States.
Running Head: WESTWARD EXPANSION Westward Expansion and the Effects On the United States October 3, Abstract The Louisiana Purchase was the largest land deal in our history. Humanity lives today in a “global village” where no people or nation can live in isolation from and indifference to what goes on elsewhere.
Resurrecting the Granary of Rome: Environmental History and French Colonial Expansion in North Africa (Ecology & History) [Diana K. Davis] on lausannecongress2018.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Winner of the George Perkins Marsh Prize for Best Book in Environmental History Winner of the Meridian Book Award for Outstanding Work in Geography Winner of the James Blaut Award in recognition of.
Electronic Literature: What is it? v January 2, By N. Katherine Hayles. N. Katherine Hayles (UCLA). Contents. Abstract; Preface; 1 A . The popular depiction for the word Reactionary gives the definition - an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism.
A more in-depth amplification is once again found in Wikipedia. “Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet typically applied to extreme ideological. I have long called myself a social conservative. I think it is very important to have standards for behaviour (etiquette) and defined roles.
The problems with this system is not that it exists, but the lack of flexibility and the value placed on them.