This article describes the three major body systems that are involved in movement-the skeletal system, the muscle system and the nervous system. Kinesiology includes the study of how these body systems work, both individually and cooperatively to facilitate the full range of human motions. This article explains the basic components of the skeletal system, including the internal structure of bones, bone development and the major classifications of bones. The muscular system is also described.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Introduction A body of basic science and clinical research has been generated on the manual muscle test MMT since its first peer-reviewed publication in The aim of this report is to provide an historical overview, literature review, description, synthesis and critique of the reliability and validity of MMT in the evaluation of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.
The search terms manual muscle testing or manual muscle test were used. Relevant peer-reviewed studies, commentaries, and reviews were selected. The two reviewers assessed data quality independently, with selection standards based on predefined methodologic criteria.
Studies of MMT were categorized by research content type: Each study was reviewed in terms of its quality and contribution to knowledge regarding MMT, and its findings presented.
Results More than studies related to MMT and the applied kinesiology chiropractic technique AK that Applied kinesiology research paper MMT in its methodology were reviewed, including studies on the clinical efficacy of MMT in the diagnosis of patients with symptomatology.
With regard to analysis there is evidence for good reliability and validity in the use of MMT for patients with neuromusculoskeletal dysfunction. The observational cohort studies demonstrated good external and internal validity, and the 12 randomized controlled trials RCTs that were reviewed show that MMT findings were not dependent upon examiner bias.
Conclusion The MMT employed by chiropractors, physical therapists, and neurologists was shown to be a clinically useful tool, but its ultimate scientific validation and application requires testing that employs sophisticated research models in the areas of neurophysiology, biomechanics, RCTs, and statistical analysis.
Review The role of the muscle system in spinal function has become increasingly well acknowledged. Manual muscle testing MMT as a method of diagnosis for spinal dysfunction has not been well utilized. This paper will present evidence that the MMT can be a legitimate and useful evaluation tool for the assessment of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.
There are many ways of examining the nervous system and the musculoskeletal system. It has been proposed that the term neuromusculoskeletal system be adopted because examination of the one may reflect the status of the other [ 12 ].
The evaluation methods of many manipulative therapists often focus at either end of the nervous system, and this paper suggests that MMT provides a method of examining both the central and the peripheral ends.
MMT is the most commonly used method for documenting impairments in muscle strength. Limited muscle testing methods are taught in a number of chiropractic schools around the world, however in a major "stand alone" chiropractic technique that employs MMT for the evaluation of patients known as applied kinesiology chiropractic technique AKturned 42 years old.
We propose in this review to look at the research status of MMT in the manual examination of the nervous system's status. The early years of the AK method are related elsewhere in detail [ 3 ]. The specific protocols and clinical objectives of the technique have been described in previous publications [ 3 - 9 ].
AK has therefore been used by a proportion of the chiropractic profession for over 42 years and is now used by other healing professions. In a survey by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners in T4H was one of the first public self-help programs and there are claims that it is the fastest growing "body work" program in the world, used by over 10 million people [ 14 ].
For the purposes of this review we define MMT as a diagnostic tool and AK as a system for its use and therapy based on the findings of the MMT In this paper we pose the following questions: After abstracts were selected for relevance and the papers acquired and reviewed, the literature was sorted according to relevance and quality.
Inclusion criteria were that the report had a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0. This selection criteria is consistent with the one suggested by Swinkels et al for the evaluation of the quality of research literature [ 15 ].
Studies with a control group a randomized clinical trialexaminer blinding, and pre- and post-test design are indicated in the descriptions of each study. Duplicates and articles published in non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded.
Statistical presentations of the data are presented showing the average correlation coefficients of MMT examination upon the different patient populations for each study. Operational Definitions and History of the Manual Muscle Test In order to be meaningful, all measurements must be based on some type of operational definition.
An operational definition is a description of the methods, tools, and procedures required to make an observation i. Kaminsky and Fletcher et al provide clinicians with some strategies to critically analyze the scientific merit of manual therapies [ 1617 ].Applied Kinesiology Ignorance along with pain can be a troublesome combination when seeking medical care.
If one only knew how many different medical treatments are out there that don’t work, we would think twice before seeking medical treatment. Kinesiology is defined as the study of muscle and body movements; whereas, applied kinesiology is defined as the diagnostic phenomenon of a muscle weakening when a person experienced anxiety or when they make a false statement.
Mar 06, · A limitation of this review may involve research published outside the main databases searched, as well as research articles involving some form of muscle testing but not using the terms manual muscle test, manual muscle testing, or applied kinesiology as they may not have been accessed and included here.
In addition this paper has not. Kinesiology Research Quotable Research and Studies supporting Applied Kinesiology Muscle database The Kinesiology Muscle Database is presented by the College of Kinesiologic Medicine, CKM and is the first complete database of muscles on the Internet. Kinesiology, at its most basic, is the study of movement.
Kinesiology is not an isolated science. Instead, kinesiology involves the examination of many sciences as they relate to the human body. Kinesiology is defined as the study of muscle and body movements; whereas, applied kinesiology is defined as the diagnostic phenomenon of a muscle weakening when a person experienced anxiety or when they make a false statement.
research paper on physical therapy.