He was famous throughout Greece as the leader of a religious community the Pythagoreansfor his belief that the soul is immortal and in the possibility of reincarnation, as well as for maintaining that numbers are the fundamental principle of the world. He was a charismatic figure who combined mathematics, mysticism, science and religion together to create a way of life with a devoted following. In Samos, Pythagoras studied the astronomy of Anaximander as well as the geometry of Thales, until leaving at the age of 40 when the tyrant Polycrates came to power.
Roman copy of a Greek bust Introduction Pythagoras of Samos c. He was the founder of the influential philosophical and religious movement or cult called Pythagoreanismand he was probably the first man to actually call himself a philosopher or lover of wisdom. Pythagoras or in a broader sense the Pythagoreansallegedly exercised an important influence on the work of Plato.
As a mathematician, he is known as the "father of numbers" or as the first pure mathematician, and is best known for his Pythagorean Theorem on the relation between the sides of a right triangle, the concept of square numbers and square roots, and the discovery of the golden ratio.
Unfortunately, little is known for sure about him, none of his original writings have survived, and his followers usually published their own works in his name and he remains something of a mysterious figure.
His secret society or brotherhood had a great effect on later esoteric traditions such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry. Life Pythagoras was born on the Greek island of Samos, in the eastern Aegean Sea off the coast of Turkey, some time between and B. His father was Mnesarchus, a Phoenician merchant from Tyre; his mother was Pythais, a native of Samos.
He spent his early years in Samos, but also traveled widely with his father. According to some reports, as a young man he met Thaleswho was impressed with his abilities and advised him to head to Memphis in Egypt and study mathematics and astronomy with the priests there, which he soon had the opportunity of.
He also traveled to study at the temples of Tyre and Byblos in Phoenicia, as well as in Babylon. At some point he was also a student of Pherecydes of Syros and of Anaximander who himself had been a student of Thales. While still quite a young man, he left his native city for Croton in southern Italy in order to escape the tyrannical government of Polycrates, the Tyrant of Samos or possibly to escape political problems related to an Egyptian-style school called the "semicircle" which he had founded on Samos.
In Croton, Pythagoras established a secret religious society very similar to and possibly influenced by the earlier Orphic cult, in an attempt to reform the cultural life of Croton. He formed an elite circle of followers around himself, called Pythagoreans or the Mathematikoi "learners"subject to very strict rules of conduct, owning no personal possessions and assuming a largely vegetarian diet.
They followed a structured life of religious teaching, common meals, exercise, music, poetry recitations, reading and philosophical study very similar to later monastic life.
The school unusually for the time was open to both male and female students uniformly women were held to be different from men, but not necessarily inferior. The Mathematikoi extended and developed the more mathematical and scientific work Pythagoras began. Other students, who lived in neighboring areas, were also permitted to attend some of Pythagoras' lectures, although they were not taught the inner secrets of the cult.
They were known as the Akousmatikoi "listeners"and they focused on the more religious and ritualistic aspects of Pythagoras' teachings and were permitted to eat meat and own personal belongings. Among his more prominent students were the philosopher EmpedoclesBrontinus who may have been Pythagoras' successor as head of the schoolPhilolaus c.
Towards the end of his life, Pythagoras fled to Metapontum further north in the Gulf of Tarentum because of a plot against him and his followers by a noble of Croton named Cylon. He died in Metapontum from unknown causes some time between and B. Work Back to Top Because of the secretive nature of his school and the custom of its students to attribute everything to Pythagoras himself, it is difficult today to determine who actually did which work.
To further confuse matters, some forgeries under his name a few of which still exist circulated in antiquity.Pythagoras was born on the island of Samos, off the coast of Asia Minor (what is now mostly Turkey), about BCE. Not much is known of his early life.
There is evidence that he was well educated, and learned to read and play the lyre. Pythagoras was born in about BC on the Greek island of Samos.
His father was a merchant. Pythagoras was taught mathematics by Thales, who brought mathematics to the Greeks from Ancient Egypt, and by Anaximander, who was an earlier student of Thales. Pythagoras of Samos (c BCE) It is sometimes claimed that we owe pure mathematics to Pythagoras, and he is often called the first "true" mathematician.
But, although his contribution was clearly important, he nevertheless remains a controversial figure. Pythagoras of Samos was a famous Greek mathematician and philosopher (c. – c. BC).
He is known best for the proof of the important Pythagorean theorem, which is about right triangles. He started a group of mathematicians, called the Pythagoreans, who worshiped numbers and lived like monks.
He was an influence for Plato. Early life Born on the island of Samos, off Greece, in the Mediterranean Sea, Pythagoras was the son of Mnesarchus.
Little is known about his early life. Pythagoreanism, philosophical school and religious brotherhood, believed to have been founded by Pythagoras of Samos, Almost all of the sources on Pythagoras' life and teachings date from long after his death, making the truth about him hard to discover.